Physical education teacher candidates demonstrate dispositions essential to becoming effective professionals.
Physical Education Curriculum Analysis Tool (PECAT)
Introduction of PECAT
Having a strong physical education curriculum can provide students with the knowledge and understanding of maintaining a healthy lifestyle and the benefits of living a physically active lifestyle. The Physical Education Curriculum Analysis Tool also known as a PECAT is used for schools to assess their current physical education curriculum. Its main purpose is to analyze the school district’s current curriculum which should be based off of current state and national standards and find just how closely the written curriculum is to incorporating these standards into their lessons. There are an overwhelming amount of benefits when using the PECAT analysis. These benefits include; exposing the strengths and weaknesses of the current curriculum, showing which areas are most vulnerable and need more improvement, and ways to improve the curriculum through the results you attain from the analysis. The PECAT was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in partnership with physical education experts representing state education agencies, school districts, schools, colleges/universities, and national organizations in the United States. (National center for 2007)
The school district analyzed using the Physical Education Curriculum Analysis Tool was Commack School District. The town of Commack is located in Suffolk County on Long Island with a population of around thirty-six thousand. The racial makeup of Commack was 80.4% White, 10.6% African American, 3.8% Asian, 6.3% from other races, and 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.9% of the population.( Commack CDP, New York, U.S. Census Bureau : 2005-2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates : Data Profile Highlights.) Commack Union Free School District is a public school district and is based throughout Dix Hills and Commack. It serves residents of Commack, Dix Hills, Smithtown and East Northport. It provides for approximately 7,800 students. There are four primary schools (grades K-2), two intermediate schools (grades 3-5) one middle school (grades 6-8) and one high school (grades 9-12). (Commack school district 2011) The curriculum analyzed was the middle school program, grades 6-8. Within the middle school the students have 10 periods in a day, each with a different teacher. The classes are 40 minutes in length, and all students must participate in three years of physical education. Commack Middle School was also noted as a blue ribbon school of excellence, the highest honor any school in America can achieve, as well as being noted as An International Baccalaureate World School.
The physical education curriculum of Commack Middle School is to be based on the National Association of Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) standards. These standards provide a framework for a quality physical education student. The PECAT also goes into detail on how each part of the curriculum is based on each standard and the goals each grade has for the students by the end of the year. The NASPE standards include; Standard 1: Students demonstrate competency in motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities. Standard 2: Students demonstrate understanding of movement concepts, principles, strategies, and tactics as they apply to the learning and performance of physical activities. Standard 3: Students participate regularly in physical activity. Standard 4: Students achieve and maintains a health-enhancing level of physical fitness. Standard 5: Students exhibit responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others in physical activity settings. Standard 6: Students value physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, self-expression, and/or social interaction. (Moving into the, 2011) Each standard has the purpose of creating a student capable of being physically educated and embracing their knowledge of physical activity in everyday life.
GRADES 6-8 EXPECTATIONS
Standard 1: Students demonstrate competency in motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.
By the end of grade 8, students should:
· Participate with skill a variety of modified sport, dance, gymnastics and outdoor activities.
· Perform basic skills of specialized sports with mature form including; gymnastics, and dance.
· Use skills successfully during modified game play in combination with basic skills.
· Demonstrate the use of tactical concepts during game play
Standard 2: The learner demonstrates understanding of movement concepts, principles, strategies, and tactics as they apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.
By the end of grade 8, students should:
· Exhibit an increase in discipline-specific knowledge
· Identify principles of practice that enhance movement performance
· Have higher levels of understanding and application of movement concepts as well as game strategies, critical elements of activity specific movement skills, and characteristics representing highly skilled performance.
· Know when, why, and how to use strategic concepts and tactics during game play
· Use various information from sources inside and outside the classroom to improve performance
Standard 3: The learner participates regularly in physical activity.
By the end of grade 8, students should:
· Be able to set physical activity goals independently and participate in individualized programs based on personal goals and interests, as well as the results of fitness assessments.
· Select and use physical activities that are appropriate for the activity goals they set.
· Have an increasing awareness of the opportunities for participation in a broad range of physical activities and interests.
· Participate regularly in moderate-to-vigorous physical activities in both school and non school settings.
· Have a level of knowledge and understanding of physical movement principles and tactics that allows them to apply these concepts to their participation in an out of school setting.
Standard 4: The learner achieves and maintains a health-enhancing level of physical fitness.
By the end of grade 8, students should:
· Participate in moderate-to-vigorous physical activities on a regular basis without undue fatigue.
· Know the components of health-related fitness and how these relate to their overall fitness status.
· Participate in physical activities that address each component of health-related fitness, including cardio respiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and body composition.
· Monitor their own heart rate, breathing, and recovery rate during and after physical activity.
· Assess their personal fitness status for each component and use the development of individualized physical fitness goals with little help from the teacher.
· Show progress towards knowing the concepts and theories of physical fitness and how these principles can be used to improve their level of physical fitness.
Standard 5: The learner exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others in physical activity settings.
By the end of grade 8, students should:
· Understand the concept of physical activity as a component of modern society and social life.
· Understand the role of diversity in physical activity and continue to include and support each other, respecting limitations and strengths of group members.
· Move from merely identifying and following rules, procedures, safe practices, ethical behavior, and positive forms of social interaction to reflecting on their role in physical activity settings.
· Have well-developed cooperation skills and accomplish group/team goals in both cooperative and competitive situations.
· Seek greater independence from adults and effectively work independently and in groups to complete assigned tasks.
· Make appropriate decisions to resolve conflicts arising from the influence of peers and practice appropriate problem-solving techniques to resolve conflicts when necessary in competitive activities.
Standard 6: The learner values physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, self-expression, and/or social interaction.
By the end of grade 8, students should:
· Seek physical-activity experiences for group membership and positive social interaction.
· Participate in physical activities that provide a positive outlet for competition with peers and a means of gaining respect and recognition so that they can increase self-confidence and self-esteem.
· Understand that physical activities can help them take steps toward independence.
· Recognize that challenge is found both in high levels of competition and in learning new and/or different activities.
· Experience a greater awareness of feelings toward the avenues of self-expression provided through dance, gymnastics, and other artistic sports.
The following section on the Physical Education Curriculum Analysis Tool will focus on the actual content and student assessment analysis for each standard stated above. The content and student assessment analyses feature five questions related to each of the six national physical education standards and their main components. This section is based on the written curriculum for Commack Middle School and the activities they use. Through this assessment we will determine if Commack Middle School addresses each standard through the appropriate questions. The scoring criteria for the content analysis consist of:
2 = Fully: The curriculum sufficiently addresses each and every element of the question.
1 = Partially: The curriculum partially addresses the question.
0 = No: The curriculum does not address the question.
*After adding up the scores of the content analysis please record your data on the official PECAT score card.
Standard 1: Demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement patterns needed to
perform a variety of physical activities
The content analysis score for standard one grade six through eight was 7/10. This curriculum failed to incorporate specific instructions that clearly indicate the appropriate grade
level at which each motor and movement skill should be introduced and subsequently taught. Throughout the curriculum it gave an overall glimpse of what is expected of the students by the end of eighth grade, but it does not give clear concise expectations along the way. The curriculum also failed to incorporate any form of Rhythms and Dance or sequential psychomotor movements. Rhythms and Dance is essential to lifetime fitness, it provides students with the foundations of dance or even sequential movements throughout life. Other than those flaws stated above the results of the curriculum for standard one were on point. The curriculum met the requirements of the PECAT, with the suggested adjustments this segment of the curriculum could meet the full requirements for standard 1.
The strengths that met the requirements of standard 1 were “Specific lessons on advanced specialized motor skills such as batting, tennis overhand serve, or badminton smash for individual noncompetitive activity, competitive activity, team court sports, and team field sports” The Commack curriculum had a vast array of activities that included locomotor skills manipulative and non manipulative skill sets. It also included a combination of two or more
Specialized or fundamental movement forms, such as dribbling and passing or receiving and passing an object against a defender? This gives students real life practice where they will be expected to incorporate more than one skill set at a particular time.
Standard 2: Demonstrates understanding of movement concepts, principles, strategies, and
tactics as they apply to the learning and performance of physical activities
The content analysis score for standard 2 was 5/10 the only fully credited requirement was the “Specific lessons on critical features of movement forms, such as teaching students about the critical features of overhand tennis serve, golf swing, or basketball shooting”. Within all the lessons it had an overview of all the fundamental elements of the particular skill. For example it went into details about grip placement on the golf swing. It also included the progressions of the swing. This is the one area of standard 2 in the curriculum that does not need any alterations. For the subject area that requires “Specific lessons on movement concepts, including game tactics for invasion and net activities” the curriculum does not included enough movement concepts and lacks any explanation of invasion tactics. The curriculum did include badminton, volleyball, and tennis so there is an incorporation of net activities. The PECAT would score this as partial requirement. It may have some aspects but is still missing components. With the addition of more movement concepts and invasion tactics this segment of the PECAT would be recorded as sufficient. The curriculum did not include any “Specific lessons about the mechanics of movement, such as air and water resistance, relationships between spin and rebound, gravity, and friction”. Throughout the curriculum it did not incorporate any of these elements. This draws creates a large area of concern, because this is vital to student learning of the interaction of one’s environment. The curriculum does not go into enough detail about the trade off’s of speed and accuracy for example. These are basic explanations of the movements and why we do them in the way that we do. With the adjustments of these aspects of standard 2 the Commack middle school curriculum will meet the requirements for standard 2.
Standard 3: Participates regularly in physical activity
The content analysis score for standard 3 was 4/10. This curriculum met the requirements for having “Specific lessons that teach students how to identify opportunities for participation in moderate to vigorous physical activities in both school and non-school settings”. The Commack curriculum had various forms of exercise and gave students the knowledge and resources needed to find physical forms of activity in the community.
The curriculum failed to incorporate “Specific lessons that stress the importance of using results of fitness assessments to establish personalized physical activity programs that reflect personal goals and interests” From what I’ve read there was no forms assessment that would be the foundations of a proper fitness program. In the ideal physical education program you always pre assess and then tailor your lesson plans around those results. I highly recommended this school immediately integrate some form of student assessment. By making the fitness program personal you are having the students set their own goals, which will increase student learning and achievement levels.
This curriculum mentions outside resources where students can get involved, although it does not give specific examples of facilities or programs in the local community. I would suggest that instead of the teacher individually discovering the resources in the curriculum the curriculum should provide it. This way all the teachers across the program are on the same page and every student is give the same opportunity.
This curriculum incorporated documentation of student results and progress in the fitness unit. It failed to include the use of technology such as hear rate monitors or pedometers. It is possible that this school cannot afford them but if the opportunity arises I highly recommend them purchasing a set of either. This fitness unit teaches the students the basics in collection of data such as pulse, beats per minute, and anaerobic & aerobic exercise. With the addition of heart rate monitors the fitness program would meet the requirements of the PECAT. The use of technology helps to motivate the students, they will want to set goals and compete amongst one another with the use of pedometers and heart rate monitors. It also gives instructors clear goals to set for their students, this way it is know what is to be expected of the students.
The Commack curriculum failed to set “Specific instructions that clearly indicate the appropriate grade level at which each physical activity concept and/or skill should be introduced and subsequently taught”. It just provided instruction for grades 6-8 throughout the curriculum. It did incorporate what would be expected by the end of each grade, but it did not explain how you would get to that point. The expectations were broad in the sense that it did not have benchmarks for the individual grade levels. For example I would like to see that the curriculum requires the students to be at a certain level of proficiency by the 5th week in the 2nd quarter. With the addition of benchmarks you would be able to track student progress on a more precise level. This will also go a long way when it comes to the end of the year when teachers have to prove their effectiveness in teaching the students. If benchmarks are in place along with proper assessment the merit system will have no issue proving your worthiness as a teacher.
Standard 4: Achieves and maintains a health-enhancing level of physical fitness
The content analysis score for standard 4 was 7/10. It had many strengths but it failed once again to incorporate specific times in the student’s education where they should be. In such an activity as personal weight lifting it is imperative that you stress the importance of overloading principles in relation to the developing bodies of the students. I highly suggest that this curriculum incorporate benchmarks for this particular unit because if the right precautions aren’t taken weightlifting could be detrimental to a student’s development and health.
Throughout the curriculum it provides many opportunities for students to participate in physical activities that improve the components of physical fitness. It lacks justification of why these components are important in the students’ lives. It would benefit the students a great amount if they had information as to why these components will help them succeed in leading a healthy lifestyle. Once again it failed to incorporate a clear concise point in the curriculum where these aspects should be implemented according to grade level.
Standard 5: Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others in physical activity settings
The content analysis for standard 5 was 6/10. The main focus of this segment of the PECAT was to assess the affective domain of the curriculum. It is important to regulate the affective domain of student learning because it is essential to a student’s success in life. The expectations that a curriculum exudes will set the tone of what kind of student a school is trying to mold.
The Content of Commack middle school addresses and emphasizes the role of personal reactions during interactions with others as well as the importance of supportive behavior and social skills. Through team sports, adventure activities, orienteering and a variety of skill sets. The behaviors that the curriculum focuses on are team work, cooperation, empathy for others, respect for all members of the class, and general appreciation for leading a healthy life.
Within the entire curriculum each activity incorporates the safety components of the lesson of that particular day. Whatever it may be either an obstruction in the area of play or a general knowledge of the rules and regulations of an activity.
In today’s modern day school it is imperative to stress the importance of the acceptance of differences amongst the student body. There were no lessons or mention of this in the curriculum. I would like to even see an anti bullying prevention class or even protocol for instances that will occur. The physical education setting will breed differences amongst students that is why you must incorporate activities through the physical that show how we are all different and we must except those differences.
Standard 6: Values physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, self-expression, and/or social interaction
The content analysis for standard 6 scored the highest 8/10. This school has put an emphasis on the values of self worth through the physical domain. It has lesson segments that highlight the importance of physical education to promote high self-esteem, and confidence throughout life. The curriculum also relates the physical movements that will be learned to the usefulness of it throughout life. Such as all the components that are learned through the three domains and how they will be applied to real life experiences. When a student comes across a situation in life and realizes that what they have learned in school really applies in the real world and that is where the appreciation begins and will continue develop.
In conclusion about the results from the PECAT it is determined that the Commack Middle School’s physical education curriculum does need some changes to be made to benefit their physical education program. Each NASPE standard was rated out of ten possible points for a combined total of sixty points. The physical education program only reached thirty-seven points out of a possible sixty points. From the results it is evident that the physical education program needs work on its expectations for their students as a department. The program does have benchmarks and broad expectations, but nothing that is to in depth that will promote and show student learning. The results also show more assessments need to be done to allow for better instructional planning. With out the pre-assessment of students the physical educators really do not know where to begin with their lesson plans for each unit. More assessments need to be used in this curriculum not only to have better planned lessons, but to show the progress of student learning. In today’s age where budgets are becoming tighter, physical educators must be able to show that our students are learning in our physical education classes. When administrators want to know why they should keep the physical education program, it is our job as physical educators to show them proof and reasoning to keep physical education programs in the school district. On further review of the PECAT is seems that the physical education program could be kept up to date with technology in today’s society. Pedometers and heart rate monitors are a great way of assessing students, using new technology and a good motivational factor for students. I believe that if this school districts physical education program would be kept up to date with technology that it would be much more beneficial for the program. Not only does the program need to be kept up to date with technology, but with the changes that are occurring in physical education. As time has passed physical education is more than just the actual ‘doing’ of the activity. Physical education is about the affective domain just as much as the psychomotor domain in today’s world. As stated in the review NASPE standard 5 the program could implement anti-bullying prevention classes. Adding this component to the program would make it much more balanced and beneficial to the students. In conclusion the Commack Middle School’s physical education program is a good one, but could use some fine tuning is different areas. Using the PECAT on Commack Middle School has made us more aware of what a physical education program entails. This experience has made us aware of a physical education programs and how to make them more beneficial as a whole and more beneficial for the students.
This artifact shows professionalism because it shows that I can evaluate an entire curriculum. The ability to do this shows that I have a passion for the subject and I have the professionalism to know what should be in a physical education curriculum